Archive for February 2015

This Week in World War One, 26th February 1915

Berwick Advertiser title 1915

26th FEBRUARY 1915



The new headquarters of the Boy Scouts in Palace Green have proved to be just what were required to ensure the successful working of the movement during the winter months.

Palace Green Pavilion

The Palace Green Pavilion is still the home of Berwick Scouts.
© Copyright Barbara Carr and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

The building has been well used, a different troop having met each evening in the week, and the attendances have been exceptionally good. There is a pleasing keenness displayed by the boys which goes far to lighten the task of those who have their training in hand, and the number of badges that have been earned, proves that they are entering into the work in the proper spirit.

Large numbers of recruits have signed on during the past six months. Owing to the dearth of scoutmasters-a difficulty by the way, which has always had to be faced-those who were already in charge of troops have had an extremely busy time of it lately. The load has been lightened in no small way by the active assistance of Lieut. Graham, of Mossknow, Ecclefechan, who is at present attached to the K.O.S.B. depot. He is Scout Commissioner for Mid-Dumfries District, and also manages a troop. Lieut. Graham takes a very keen interest in boys and their work, and is much respected by the Scouts who readily take advantage of the instruction he so capably gives. The Scout Association is much indebted to Commissioner Graham for his kindly help.

Scout leaders at Wooler

R. Clements (front row, 2nd from right) and other scout group leaders on a summer camp at Wooler in 1910. REF: BRO/1828/4

There is still room for further assistance, however, and any interested friends of the movement will be welcomed at Headquarters any evening excepting Saturdays, to see for themselves the nature of the instruction.

The weather has been propitious enough on one or two occasions of late to permit of outdoor work being undertaken. Many of the tests for badges were done indoors, but those that necessitated an outside area were gone through when the patrols had their outings. Since Mr Thompson Seton’s lecture at Berwick, patrol calls have been sounded with greater courage and efficiency, especially when the bricks and mortar have been left behind and the fields and sea banks gained.

The north-country temperament prevents the boy from doing what he thinks may cause people to laugh at him; he certainly laughed at Mr Seton’s admirable imitation of the cries of the wolf and the elk. However, when this natural shyness is overcome and animals have been studied the scout may be pleased to display his abilities, and not, let us hope, to the regret of his older neighbours.

Jimmy Strength

Statue of Jimmy Strength in the garden of the Scout Headquarters in 1908. REF: BRO/1636/6/9

The various troops have been equipped with neckerchiefs and shoulder knots, so that, in future, there will be greater uniformity among the members of the various units.

In order to raise funds for the local association, a whist drive is to be held in the Good Templar Hall next Tuesday.

The outside of the Headquarters has been painted and the place has quite a fresh appearance. “Jimmie Strength” has also received a new “coat”.

Horncliffe Troop is going on well under Mr Robson, the Council Schoolmaster.

The latest local scout to receive his King’s Scout badge is Patrol leader J. M. Dodds of the Grammar School troop, who has something like eighteen proficiency badges.

A number of excellent models of bridges and several useful stools and other household furniture have been made by

the scouts. If sufficient are produced before the winter season finishes it may be possible to have an exhibition of these things.

Advert for Browns Opticians

Advert from the Berwick Advertiser 26th February 1915


The Stannington Radiographs

The radiographs make up a significant part of the Stannington collection with a total of 14,674 separate images relating to 2220 different patients covering roughly a 20 year period from 1936 to c.1955. When the records were recovered in the 1980s the vast majority of the radiographs were copied on to microfiche and the originals destroyed as they were unstable. However, we still have 326 original radiographs within the collection. Over the course of the project all the microfiche images and the originals will be digitised and made publicly accessible. We also hope to preserve the remaining original radiographs as examples of how x-ray images at the time were produced. The problem here lies with the unstable nature of the film and its natural degradation.


All the radiographs were produced on cellulose acetate film, known as safety film as it replaced the earlier nitrate film that was highly flammable and potentially self-combustible, a problem for many film archives today. Over time the cellulose acetate film naturally breaks down, the early stages of this are recognisable by the strong smell of vinegar coming off the film as the process gives off acetic acid and because of this is known as vinegar syndrome. Eventually as the base of the film and the top layer pull away from one another the film will begin to buckle and crack and bubbles can form under the surface.


Figure 1


Figure 2

This process is already evident in several of the radiographs we hold (figures 1 & 2) and unfortunately there isn’t anything that can be done to reverse or halt the process. By storing the films in a closely monitored temperature and humidity controlled environment we hope to delay the process in most of the radiographs for as long as possible.



Figure 4


Figure 3









The x-rays were originally stored in ordinary brown envelopes and there could be as many as 15 in each envelope. (Figure 3)  To help preserve them we have instead transferred each x-ray into an individual acid free sleeve. (Figure 4)  By storing them individually we are able to minimise any accumulation of acetic acid that is produced in the degradation process.  Thanks to advice from conservators at Durham County Record Office and their assistance in sourcing the new x-ray envelopes, all the original films are now safely stored in their own envelopes in our photogrpahic strong room.


This degradation is evident in some of the microfiche as well as the original films had obviously started to buckle already at the time they were transferred to microfiche in the 1980s. Consequently some of the images are obscured by a crackling effect. Nevertheless the vast majority of the 14,674 images remain easily readable and the digitisation process will mean that they remain clearly accessible for future use.


[See our Flickr stream for examples of some of the radiographs]

My Grandfather’s Clock

Part of the criteria for our successful bid with the HLF was that Northumberland At War should use social media websites more. One way of getting our longer stories across was the development of our own blog.

We were contacted by Ted Milburn following our first blog on ‘Northumberland Airship Bases’ by Malcolm Fife. It was at this point that Ted mentioned the story of his grandfather and I thought it would be fantastic to share this with the rest of the world. So here it is:-

My grandfather’s clock…..

…….is a hundred years old. It was presented to my grandmother and grandfather on the day of their wedding, 26 December 1914, and bears the inscription “Presented by the Sergeants of 1st Bn Tyneside Scottish to Coy Sgt Major Dale on the occasion of his marriage”. The glass case below the clock is home to his Tyneside Scottish Cap Badge. Nowadays we do not wind up the clock and set the time. We have stopped it at 7.31 – marking the same time, as on that sunny morning of 1 July 1916, when whistles were blown, and four battalions of the Tyneside Scottish Regiment moved towards the German trenches in Mash Valley on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. It is our little memorial to his life.


Richard Albert Dale had been a police constable in Newcastle for two years before he volunteered to join the Tyneside Scottish in September 1914. He moved from his home in Clones, County Monaghan in 1912 – having completed training as a policeman in Ireland, and it is clear from the speed and enthusiasm with which he enlisted that he was keen to be associated with a regiment which had strong links and loyalties in north east England, his chosen home.

His army number was 20/8 – the “20” related to the 20th Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers, and the “8” indicated that he was the eighth man to enlist in that regiment. The four battalions of the Tyneside Scottish and Tyneside Irish Regiments were part of the newly created army of Kitchener’s volunteers, but were in reality Northumberland Fusiliers. The regiment recruited locally throughout Tyneside, and notably within Northumberland and County Durham – so Richard Dale was amongst men from Cramlington, Seghill, Morpeth, Ashington as well as those from Tyneside and County Durham. Men flocked to sign on.

Soon the 1st Battalion were moved to Alnwick, along with over 1000 other Tyneside Scottish and Tyneside Irish soldiers. They were housed on the east side of Alnwick Castle where a huge hutted camp had been built in the fields to facilitate training in readiness for their subsequent departure for France. Alnwick camp was their base from January 1915 until January 1916. They marched from Newcastle to Alnwick in snow and biting wind and stayed overnight in Morpeth, in a number of community and church halls. For almost a year in Alnwick they trained in the use of rifles, machine guns, grenades and other weaponry and were tested in marching, drill and the skills required in the laying and cutting of barbed wire and living in trenches. The picture below shows Richard Dale (extreme left) leading group of soldiers through Alnwick streets.

Richard Dale 3

In addition to army training, a social network developed in the camp. In off-duty moments there were inter-regimental competitions in sports and games, and the customary rivalry on the football fields and cricket pitches. There are reports in regimental records of a number of soldiers keeping pets, and like many regiments, some of the units had mascots.

Richard Dale 2

The above picture shows a grouping of regimental colour sergeants and sergeants taken at the Alnwick camp, illustrating behind them the huts to which the lads gave nicknames, such as “Knockout Villa”, “The Crackers Hut” and “The Pig and Whistle”. Richard Dale is at the centre in the back row and he has an owl on his arm – (for which I have no authentic explanation!).

The newly married Elizabeth Dale lived with her retired foster parents John and Isabella Eskdale in Heaton, Newcastle – although they later moved to Edward Street in Morpeth, where Elizabeth rented and ran a little sweetie shop in Newgate Street opposite Wm. Stokers the Butcher. She was well known to local shopkeepers and the schoolchildren of Morpeth throughout her life in the town. Visits to Richard during his year in Alnwick were often and from time to time he was able to get leave to go home. Before long she became pregnant. Amidst the joy, they must have both wrestled with concerns relating to Richard’s imminent departure for France and the uncertainty of the future.

Movement orders arrived in January 1916. The eight Tyneside Scottish and Tyneside Irish Battalions left by train from Alnwick Station and travelled via Salisbury Plain to join the other regiments in 34 Division in Warminster, then forward to embark at Southampton Harbour, for Le Havre, Abbeville, St. Omer, Blendeques and Wardeques. The volunteer soldiers of Northumberland, Durham and Tyneside were on their way to the Somme.

Richard must have been delighted to be granted compassionate leave so that he could briefly return to see his newborn daughter and Elizabeth. Muriel (my mother) was born on 10 February 1916 and this visit by Richard was the only time that he saw her before having to travel back to his regiment which was moving into the Somme region.

Richard Dale

The war in France had changed by 1916. At the beginning of hostilities in 1914, WW1 was a war of movement – by the time of the Battle of the Somme, it had changed to being a war of stagnation. Both sides of the conflict were well dug in, facing each other in deep trenches which stretched from Switzerland to Normandy. The 1st Bn Tyneside Scottish were positioned in trenches near Ouvillers, flanked on the left by 2Bn The Middlesex Regiment and on the right by 4th Bn Tyneside Scottish. Whistles blew at 0731hrs and the pipers started to play the “Haughs of Cromdale” – men walked forward, in open countryside, to cross the 800 yards towards the German lines………..

CSM Richard Dale died before 10 o’clock on that morning.

The official casualty rates for the 1Bn Tyneside Scottish for that day indicate 27 officers and 557 men were injured or killed – a total of 584 out of the 800 who had started in the attack. A, 73% casualty rate.

We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Ted Milburn in supplying this article for the Northumberland At War Project.

This Week in World War One, 20th February 1915

Berwick Advertiser title 1915




Patriotic Meeting,-The Rev W. Thorp, M.A., gave a lantern lecture on “Early Stages of the Great War,” in the course of which about seven dozen slides were used to illustrate the various aspects of the conflict. Mr J.R. Marshall, of Chatton Park, the chairman, referred to the suitability of the financial object of the meeting, namely; the helping of Belgian refugees, who will benefit to the extent of £4 as a result.  A feature of the meeting was the presence of four Belgian soldiers at present being cared for in their convalescence at Hetton House by Mrs L.H. Leather-Culley, who along with some of her Red Cross nurses, accompanied them.


Vessels Ashore.-About 5 a.m. on Tuesday morning the steamship “C.H.R. Christesen” of Copenhagen, 911 tons, and built in Flensburg in 1903, which was bound from Aarkuus for New York, via the Tyne, in ballast, ran ashore on the Longstone Point. The vessel was badly holed and is likely to become a total wreck.

The Holy Island lifeboat was launched at 6.15 a.m. to assist in landing the crew of nineteen on the Longstone. The crew were brought to the mainland by the Seahouses lifeboat and Berwick Harbour tug.

Bewick advertiser 19th feb 1915 shopkeepers advert

Recruiting advert from the Berwick Advertiser February 19th 1915



Salmon fishing commenced on the Tweed on Monday morning, but the opening was not particularly bright, and only a few fish were caught. In the Norham district the opening was decidedly disappointing. Salmon sold on Monday at 2s per lb, this being the same as on the opening day last year. The fishing at the river mouth stations this year will be rather handicapped owing to the military authorities prohibiting fishing at these stations at night.

There has been no improvement in the fishing since Monday. On Thursday morning there was a spate in the river and in consequence of this the stations in the lower reaches were not working. Salmon was sold on Thursday at 1s 9d per lb. against 2s on the corresponding day last year.


A parcel of cigarettes sent by the household servants at Wooperton (through Mr R. F. Henderson, Wooler), has been acknowledged by the “C” Squadron Northumberland Hussars Yeomanry, and were much appreciated.

The 7th Welsh Territorials, who have been stationed at Berwick on coast defence since August, are preparing to leave the town for another station in the south. The men have become very popular during their stay in the town and their vocalists have taken a prominent part in many local concerts.

An armoured motor car attached to the Highland Light Infantry, stopped in Berwick on Wednesday evening for a short time on its way north. This is the first armoured car to pass through Berwick, and it attracted a good deal of attention.


Berwick Advertiser 1915 Feb 19th Pg2 martins stationary

Advert for Martin’s stationary shop, from the Berwick Advertiser 19th February 1915


Thomas Burns, F.R.S.I., who has been a highly appreciated contributor to our columns for many years, and much of whose poetry has been published in book form, has just received a special letter of thanks from Lord Kitchener’s, from the War Office, London, for his poem entitled “The March of Kitchener’s Army,” which appeared in the “Advertiser” on the 5th of the present month.

During recent years there have been many honours showered upon our author in recognition of his labours in the sphere of poetry, and happily amongst them, compliments from sovereigns, scientists, philosophers, divines, and fellow poets, and other literateurs of the highest distinction.

But a recognition by, and a special letter of thanks from the superman of the moment, and such a moment, pregnant as it is with world wide destinies, which has enveloped and may constitute new boundaries, and determine vastly different conditions of life throughout the whole civilised world: such an honour is well fitted to bring a glow of pride that will kindle a new flame of courage in the poet’s heart though the fact remains, that since the beginning of time, the poet and the warrior have ever fought shoulder to shoulder on the same plane for the uplifting of humanity and for the light and liberty of the race.

Harris Lines of Arrested Growth

The poor living conditions that many of the children at Stannington Sanatorium came from, outlined in our last post, can often leave physical markers on the skeleton, namely Harris Lines.

Harris Lines are an indication of periods of arrested growth whilst the body is still growing during childhood and can be displayed as opaque, transverse lines on long bones. These can be identified through radiographic imaging or physically on skeletal remains.

The appearance of these lines is considered to show periods in an individual’s childhood when the body comes under stress, which is usually attributed to malnutrition or significant childhood disease. In order for the individual to acquire Harris Lines, they have to have recovered from the period of stress, prolonged malnutrition or disease would not result in their appearance.



Numerous patients from Stannington Sanatorium demonstrate Harris Lines in their radiographs. One such example is seen above, patient 148/1948. Thi image was taken in November 1948, approximately 10 months after initial diagnosis of tuberculosis was made. On this patient Harris Lines are identifiable on both proximal and, to a greater degree, distal tibiae, as a brighter, opaque line close to the epiphysis.

This individual was admitted to the sanatorium aged 2 with a Primary Complex, primary infection in the mid zone of the right lung. Their medical history indicates that their father had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and subsequently died. The family, consisting of mother, father and two children were living in one room for the majority of the individual’s life, only moving to a two roomed house around the time of their admission to Stannington and on admittance to the sanatorium the child was described in the medical notes as being ‘thin’ and ‘ pale’.

Social conditions such as these would have attributed to the premise of the child undergoing one or more periods of stress during growth and alongside the description of the individual being ‘thin’, malnutrition is possible. A poor appetite or anorexia is often noted in the medical notes of patients as being symptomatic of tuberculosis, again suggesting possible malnutrition. However, the effects of the tuberculosis infection alone would have put the body under due stress and may, therefore, have contributed to the presence of Harris Lines. Both malnutrition and acute tuberculous infection are potential causes of the Harris Lines, alone and in conjunction with one another, and demonstrate the secondary effects that disease and social conditions can have on an individual’s body.

This patient was removed against medical advice approximately one month after admittance, only to be re-admitted seven months later with tuberculosis of the cervical vertebrae. They were eventually discharged in December 1950, two years later, but continued to be seen as an out-patient. No further treatment was required at Stannington Sanatorium.


For more radiographic images, view the ‘Radiographs from Stannington’ on Flickr


Roberts, C and Manchester, K (2006). Archaeology of Disease (3rd Edition). Cornell University Press.

This Week in World War One, 12 February 1915

Berwick Advertiser title 1915



Patriotic Concert- Amidst a show of bunting and flags an entertainment was given in the schoolroom on Monday last on behalf of the War Funds. The first part of the programme consisted of a series of songs and recitations given by small children. Mr George Wilson sung the popular “Tipperary” song.

This was followed by the pageant “Britannia’s Reception of her Colonies.” The performers were all attired in costumes representing the various countries and performed their parts in a manner which called forth great applause. Mrs Marion Bell represented Britannia (whose train was borne by Florence Spencer and Maggie D Cromarty), to whom father Neptune (Mr Hollingsworth) presented the Ambassadors of Canada (Miss May Wilson), accompanied by the Negro (James E. Walker) and Red Indian (James Brigham). Australia was represented by Mrs Hollingsworth; New Zealand by Miss Fanny Douglas; India by Miss Lalla Bell; South Africa by Ralph Wilson; our ally Japan, by Miss Lulu Bell; On Britannia calling for the representatives of the homeland Mr R. A Wilson bowed to her in the character of John Bull and was followed by Miss Maggie Wilson for Scotland; Miss Rachael Kyle for Ireland; Miss Lalla Allison for Wales. The Army and Navy were seen in the persons of Messrs R Straughan and T. Cromarty.

The schoolroom was well filled with a very appreciative audience who afterwards requested that the performance might be repeated in the near future to enable others to enjoy it. Great credit is due to Mr Riley, who organised the entertainment and was ably assisted by Mr and Mrs Hollingsworth; Mrs Crawshaw; Mrs Riley and Miss Brigham.


The Market Square in Holy Island

Postcard of Market Square on Holy Island Ref: BRO/426/1068




The family of Sergeant James Ramsay, R.F.A., of Berwick, has a fine record of patriotism. His Grandfather and father were in the Army, and his son is also in the R.F.A. His wife and daughter are both acting as nurses, and his son-in-law, Lieut. Weir, R.F.A., received his commission for bravery at Mons.

2nd Lieut. John Robertson, only son of Alex Robertson of Gateshead, has been promoted Lieut. 11th Battalion Durham Light Infantry. Lieut. Robertson is the grandson of the late John Robertson and of the late Joseph Currie, of West End, Tweedmouth.


Advert for films being shown at The Playhouse, Berwick

Advert from the Berwick Advertiser, 12 February 1915.


Social Conditions

Many of the children admitted to the sanatorium came from impoverished backgrounds and had poor living conditions, nearly certain to be a contributing factor to them contracting TB.  Some of the common risk factors for contracting tuberculosis include overcrowding, malnourishment, a weakened immune system, being either very young or very old and a lack of access to medical care to ensure treatment and prevention.  Consequently, the following account from the records of Stannington Sanatorium hardly comes as a surprise and is by no means unusual.


This particular case from the 1940s perfectly illustrates the challenging conditions and the effect of childhood diseases.  The girl, patient 145/1946, was admitted to Stannignton Sanatorium in October of 1945 at the age of 3.  Her case notes indicate that she had already had measles and pneumonia and had been suffering from her present condition of tuberculosis of the right knee for the past 18 months.  After 4 years of treatment she was considered fit for discharge at which point the living conditions she had left behind at the age of 3 are made clear.  The local medical officer reports that

“The home conditions in this case are appalling.  The housing accommodation is only two rooms, in which are already living four adults and five children.”

With this borne in mind the medical staff, unsurprisingly, consider it counterproductive to discharge the girl home and within 3 months she is instead discharged to the Briarmede Nursery in Gateshead.  Medical staff were obliged to take into consideration the living conditions of all patients and consult with local medical officers in the relevant districts before discharging their patients or risk undoing much of the good that had been achieved during the child’s stay in the sanatorium.  Where conditions were not satisfactory children could be discharged to other institutions, as above, or could find themselves staying at the sanatorium longer than was medically necessary, a situation which the doctors were obviously keen to avoid.


For many children coming from backgrounds such as this, being removed to the sanatorium, whilst it may have been difficult being separated from family at such a young age, may in fact have been a blessing in disguise.  Even without the effective drug treatments we have today, the instant improvement in living conditions would have made untold differences to their health and wellbeing.  In each child’s case file it is quite common to see descriptions of their living conditions in their general and family history, taking into account the type of house they were living in, the number of occupants, and the sanitation available.  This information alongside correspondence from the children’s parents requesting support for applications for improved housing gives us a great insight into some of the social conditions across the North East during this period.


The image below is taken from a brochure produced by the sanatorium in 1936 to promote their services and show images of one patient at four different points in time to illustrate the success of the treatment that Stannington provided. (HOSP/STAN/9/1/1)

NRO 3000-69 PAGE 9 1NRO 3000-69 PAGE 9 2

See also our later post on Harris Lines.

Osteomyelitis Part 1 – A Case Study of Patient 90/1951.

Patient 90/1951 was initially transferred from the Newcastle Royal Victoria Infirmary (RVI), having been treated for a lesion on the left os-calcis (heel bone). The pus taken from the lesion was tested and returned positive for tubercle bacilli, tuberculosis infection. The patient was admitted to Stannington in June 1951. Later, in July 1951, a cold abscess formed in the right cuboid. According to the patient’s medical notes both sinus lesions were healed by January 1952, following a course of dihydrostreptomycin which, as a result of the healing, was discontinued.

In March 1952, radiographic imaging revealed the patient had developed tuberculosis osteomyelitis.

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone marrow, whereby the bone undergoes inflammatory destruction to create lesions. These lesions, or sinuses, can allow pus formation and ultimately new bone begins to form in repair. Osteomyelitis is caused by non-specific bacterial infection and as such is not a specific indicator of tuberculosis. In cases of tuberculosis, osteomyelitis is likely to be caused by haematogenous spread, also known as miliary tuberculosis.

Patient 90/1951, shown below, developed tuberculosis osteomyelitis affecting the tibiae. The radiograph shows the left leg, both laterally (left) and anteroposteriorly (right). Extensive bone destruction can be seen, as well as swelling with some new bone growth to the proximal tibia. The patient notes indicate that the patient was admitted to the RVI for an operation to incise the abscesses on their left leg in August 1952.




This is but one example of osteomyelitis in connection with tuberculosis. Further examples are evident within the patient files and will be discussed as the project continues.

For those of you who find the radiographic images of interest, more can be seen on our Flickr stream at


C. Roberts & K. Manchester, The Archaeology of Disease Third Edition (New York: Cornell University Press, 2005)

This Week in World War One, 5th February 1915

Berwick Advertiser title 1915

5th FEBRUARY 1915


Louvain town hall in ruins

Rubble in front of the ruined town hall in Louvain after its sacking by the German army in 1914.
© IWM (Q 53271)

On Thursday, January 28th, a lecture was given in the school in aid of the Belgian Relief Fund.  The lecturer was M. Wouters of Antwerp, whose account of his personal experiences of the war was listened to by a deeply interested audience.  M. Wouters went through the whole of the earlier part of the war, including the sieges of Liege and Antwerp, and the sacking of Louvain and Namur.  Thereafter he was invalided to England.

His account of these terrible times was thrilling and showed what a heroic part gallant little Belgium had played for the saving of Liberty and Civilization. The lecture was illustrated by lantern views of some of the horrors wrought by the ruthless Germans, and concluded with a passionate appeal to Englishmen for more help in men and money.  The proceeds amounted to £5, and this will be sent to assist in a small way in relieving the distress prevailing among the unfortunate people the story of whose self-sacrificing bravery will forever “re-echo down the long corridors of Time.”

Belgain refugees

Belgian refugees in 1914. Image from Wikimedia Commons.


Mr Robertson, books; Miss Pearson, eggs; Mrs Young, St Leonard’s Cakes;Miss Weatherhead, 31 Castlegate, eggs; Miss Herriot, scones; Miss Tait, Bridge Street, currant loaf; Miss B Fair, illustrated papers; Mrs Wilsden, The Elms, apples and oranges; Miss Alder, Halidon, soup; Miss Wood, Horncliffe, beef jelly; “A Friend”, morning papers; “A Friend”, bananas; Mrs A. Darling, Bondington, scones; Mrs Herriot, Sanson Seal, cakes; Miss Herriot, do, loan of gramophone and records; Mrs Gemmel, 25 Low Greens, daily papers and vegetables; “A Friend”, Two puddings.


Advert for Fairnington & Sons drapers

Advert from the Berwick Advertiser 5th February 1915